portal hypertension patient write up

by Genoveva Lynch III 7 min read

Portal Hypertension - PMC

23 hours ago Portal Hypertension Diagnosis. There are a number of ways to diagnose portal hypertension. For patients with end-stage liver disease who present with ascites and varices, the doctor may not need to perform any diagnostic tests and can confirm a diagnosis based on symptoms. Diagnostic procedures your doctor may order include: Imaging and blood tests >> Go To The Portal


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Portal Hypertension Diagnosis. There are a number of ways to diagnose portal hypertension. For patients with end-stage liver disease who present with ascites and varices, the doctor may not need to perform any diagnostic tests and can confirm a diagnosis based on symptoms. Diagnostic procedures your doctor may order include: Imaging and blood tests

What is portal hypertension (portal hypertension)?

Portal hypertension is an increase in the pressure within the portal vein (the vein that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver). The increase in pressure is caused by a blockage in the blood flow through the liver. Increased pressure in the portal vein causes large veins ( varices) to develop across the esophagus and stomach to get around the blockage.

How is clinically significant portal hypertension diagnosed?

Jun 04, 2021 · Portal hypertension is the driver of complications in cirrhosis, such as ascites and gastro-oesophageal varices (which can haemorrhage), as well as hepatic encephalopathy due to portosystemic shunting, hepatorenal syndrome and hypersplenism.5 Patients with complications of portal hypertension show repeating readmissions in the hospital and are described as …

What are the treatment options for portal hypertension?

Mar 09, 2022 · Portal hypertension often develops in the setting of cirrhosis, schistosomiasis, or extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis. It is the result of resistance to portal blood flow and may lead to complications such as variceal bleeding and ascites. This topic will review the development, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of portal hypertension in ...

What are the suprahepatic causes of portal hypertension?

What are possible complications of portal hypertension? The possible complications of portal hypertension are: Internal bleeding. Esophageal varices are enlarged veins at the lower end of the esophagus. With portal hypertension, blood backs up in nearby veins in the esophagus and stomach, causing varices.

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What are clinical findings in a patient with portal hypertension?

The clinical manifestations of portal hypertension may include caput medusae, splenomegaly, edema of the legs, and gynecomastia (less commonly) (Figure 2). Caput medusae is a network of dilated veins surrounding the umbilicus.

What is the most common presentation of portal hypertension?

The main symptoms and complications of portal hypertension include:Gastrointestinal bleeding marked by black, tarry stools or blood in the stools, or vomiting of blood due to the spontaneous rupture and hemorrhage from varices.Ascites (an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen)More items...•Dec 7, 2020

How do you assess portal hypertension?

How is portal hypertension diagnosed?Lab tests. You may have various blood tests. A low platelet count is the most common sign of portal hypertension.Imaging tests. These give your provider pictures of the liver or blood flow in the liver. ... Endoscopic exam. This is done to see inside the upper digestive tract.

What is the most common complication of portal hypertension?

Variceal hemorrhage is the most common complication associated with portal hypertension. Almost 90% of patients with cirrhosis develop varices, and approximately 30% of varices bleed.Nov 30, 2017

Why does portal hypertension cause splanchnic vasodilation?

The down-regulation of the mesenteric adrenergic system has been interpreted as a local consequence of portal hypertension that might contribute to aggravating splanchnic vasodilation, which is responsible for a generalized sympathetic overactivity, especially in muscles and kidneys.

What stage of liver disease is portal hypertension?

Portal hypertension is the major driver in the transition from the compensated to the 'decompensated' stage of cirrhosis [5], defined by the presence of clinical complications, including ascites [6], bleeding from gastroesophageal varices [7], spontaneous bacterial peritonitis [8], hepatorenal syndrome [6], and hepatic ...Nov 10, 2017

What is a TIPS procedure for?

A TIPS is used to treat the complications of portal hypertension, including: variceal bleeding, bleeding from any of the veins that normally drain the stomach, esophagus, or intestines into the liver. portal gastropathy, an engorgement of the veins in the wall of the stomach, which can cause severe bleeding.

What is portal hypertension caused by?

Portal hypertension is elevated pressure in your portal venous system. The portal vein is a major vein that leads to the liver. The most common cause of portal hypertension is cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver.

Is portal hypertension life threatening?

Portal hypertension is a dangerous condition with severe, life-threatening complications. Call your healthcare provider right away if you notice any of these symptoms: Yellowing of the skin. Abnormally swollen belly.

How long can you live with portal hypertension?

These complications result from portal hypertension and/or from liver insufficiency. The survival of both stages is markedly different with compensated patients having a median survival time of over 12 years compared to decompensated patients who survive less than 2 years (1, 3).Jun 11, 2012

What are varices in the esophagus?

Varices are varicose veins associated with portal hypertension. Your doctor can view them during an endoscopy (internal viewing of your gastrointestinal tract) or other imaging study. Varices most often occur in the esophagus or stomach as a result of portal hypertension. This is often because the liver tissue is scarred and blood cannot flow through normally. As the portal blood is rerouted due to the increased resistance, varices develop. In patients with cirrhosis, most often the bleeding is related to esophageal varices, which are enlarged veins in your esophagus. Acute bleeding from varices in patients with portal hypertension requires immediate attention in order to control the bleeding and prevent it from recurring.

What is the goal of portal hypertension?

The goal of treatment for portal hypertension is to prevent further complications and decrease pressure. However, it can be difficult to maintain the proper pressure. Learn more about portal hypertension treatment at Johns Hopkins.

What is the first imaging test for portal hypertension?

They are noninvasive and can give your doctor a detailed image of your portal venous system. A duplex Doppler ultrasound is typically the first imaging test ordered. A Doppler ultrasound uses sound waves to see how the blood flows through your portal vein.

What is a Doppler ultrasound?

A Doppler ultrasound uses sound waves to see how the blood flows through your portal vein. The ultrasound gives your doctor a picture of the blood vessel and its surrounding organs, as well as the speed and direction of the blood flow through the portal vein.

What is a pressure measurement study?

Pressure Measurement Studies. An interventional radiologist may perform a pressure measurement study to evaluate the level of pressure in the hepatic (liver) vein. This can be done as an outpatient, where a radiologist will access one of your veins, usually via internal jugular vein.

What side do you lie on when you have a gag reflex?

You will also receive pain medication and a sedative. You lie on your left side, referred to as the left lateral position. Your doctor inserts the endoscope (a thin, flexible, lighted tube with a camera) through your mouth and pharynx, into the esophagus.

Is portal hypertension a hepatic encephalopathy?

Hepatic encephalopathy is impairment in neuropsychiatric function associated with portal hypertension. Symptoms are usually mild, with subtle changes in behavior, changes in sleep pattern, mild confusion or slurred speech. However, it can progress to more serious symptoms, including severe lethargy and coma. Although we lack clear understanding of encephalopathy, there is an association with increase in ammonia concentration in the body. (However this does not correlate to regular blood test levels of ammonia).

How long does DSRS surgery last?

The surgery lasts about 4 hours. You should expect to stay in the hospital from 7 to 10 days. DSRS controls bleeding in over 90% of patients; the highest risk of any recurrent bleeding is in the first month. However, the DSRS procedure provides good long-term control of bleeding.

What is the procedure that a gastroenterologist uses to stop bleeding?

Sclerotherapy is a procedure performed by a gastroenterologist in which a solution is injected into the bleeding varices to stop or control the risk of bleeding. Banding is a procedure in which a gastroenterologist uses rubber bands to block the blood supply to each varix (enlarged vein).

What is the condition that can be treated by a radiologist?

This condition can be treated by a radiologist who re-expands the shunt with a balloon or repeats the procedure to place a new stent. Encephalopathy, or mental changes caused by abnormal functioning of the brain that occur with severe liver disease, is another potential complication.

What happens during DSRS?

During the surgery, the vein from the spleen (called the splenic vein) is detached from the portal vein and attached to the left kidney (renal) vein. This surgery selectively reduces the pressure in your varices and controls the bleeding.

What is the purpose of a TIPS stent?

The TIPS procedure reroutes blood flow in the liver and reduces pressure in all abnormal veins, not only in the stomach and esophagus, but also in the bowel and the liver. The TIPS procedure is not a surgical procedure.

What is portal hypertension?

Portal hypertension is an increase in the pressure within the portal vein, which carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. The most common cause is cirrhosis of the liver, but thrombosis (clotting) might also be the cause.

How to treat encephalopathy?

This condition can be treated with medications, diet or by replacing the shunt.

What is the best treatment for liver disease?

Liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. This option offers excellent patient survival and rehabilitation. Challenges of livertransplantation include a scarcity of human cadaver donors, rejection, and the limited financial resources of most patients. Liver transplantation is a long and complexsurgery that involves the removal and the replacement of the body's largest solid organ. It requires surgical expertise in biliary and vascular reconstruction.Variceal bleeding alone is not an indication for transplantation; refractory bleeding can elevate the listing status of patients awaiting transplant (Figure 19, A and B).

What is a TIPSS?

Nonsurgical Transjugular Intrahepatic Portal-Systemic Shunt (TIPSS)Transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunting is a radiologic procedure that has become very popular as an alternative method of controlling acute bleeding,especially if gastric varices are present. It is also indicated in patients who have had recurrent bleeding despite medical or endoscopic management.

What causes varicose veins in the stomach?

Varices are varicose veins, visible on endoscopy, an upper GI series or other imaging studies, that occur in the esophagus or stomach as a result of portalhypertension (Figure 11). Cirrhosis causes severe scarring of the liver and impedes the normal circulation of blood. Varices develop when portal blood is rerouted tothe systemic circulation , through collateral vessels, because of increased resistance to blood flow to or through the liver. Obstructions may occur in the hepatic veins,sinusoids, or portal veins. The pressure within these irregular vessels is great and they have the potential to rupture.

What is ascites in liver?

Ascites is the presence of excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Ascites frequently develops in patients with chronic liver disease, but may be due to a wide range ofcauses. Clinically, patients may be asymptomatic or may have a variety of complaints including early satiety, increase in abdominal girth, or respiratory distress(depending upon the amount of fluid accumulation in the abdomen) (Figure 9). Patient with ascites often have abdominal distention, tympany of the top, bulgingflanks, puddle sign, fluid wave, or shifting dullness on physical examination. The most important aspect in treating ascites is to restrict sodium to less than 2 g per day.More restrictive regimens are difficult to accomplish in the outpatient setting. Water restriction is generally not necessary unless patients develop hyponatremia. In thissetting, fluid restriction to less than 1.5 liters per day is generally adequate. Diuretic therapy, to reduce sodium retention by the kidneys, is generally required. This isachieved through blocking

What is the standard diagnostic approach in patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage after initial resuscitation

Endoscopy is the standard diagnostic approach in patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage after initial resuscitation. In most patients with cirrhosis (60–80%)bleeding is related to esophageal varices. In addition to making a definitive diagnosis, endoscopic therapy may be indicated for bleeding. Endoscopic examinationmay require endotracheal intubation in patients who have significant alteration in mental status as a result of severe hepatic decompensation.

What is the purpose of shunting in portal hypertension?

The aim of surgical shunting in portal hypertension is threefold: 1) to reduce portal venous pressure, 2) to maintain hepatic and portal blood flow, and 3) to try toreduce or not complicate hepatic encephalopathy ( Figure 16). Currently, there is no procedure that reliably and consistently fulfills all of these criteria.

What is the most common cause of portal hypertension?

Cirrhosis is the most common cause of portal hypertension, and chronic viral hepatitis C is the most common cause of cirrhosis in the United States. Alcohol-inducedliver disease and cholestatic liver diseases are other common causes of cirrhosis. Less common causes include hemochromatosis, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency,drug-induced liver disease, and (in Eastern countries) hepatitis B. Portal hypertension is considered an advanced complication of cirrhosis. Once it has developed, theterm "decompensated cirrhosis" is used (Figure 5).

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